1.2. Statement of problem
Children are marginalized and often come to be employed in factories, industries and other fields. The child labour in our society has appeared as a great problem. Children are generally forced to work in domestic affairs and most of the children participate in various works to support their parents. In rural societies, majority of the people are poor and they use their children as a means of income. So they encourage their children to work instead of attending school. On the other, child exploitation is done in business sector for providing support to the family members. Due to the lack of awareness, the problem of child is ignored in many societies as a result; the child labourers have occupied the place as major negative phenomena on the way of development. Unfortunately, large numbers of children in Nepal is being excluded from their fundamental rights. Majority of the children in our country do not have any idea of child rights. They always depend upon their parents and are working under their elders with various difficulties. In Nepal, child labourers are widely spreading and increasing. In rural areas, a child who doesn’t go formal school is working as child labourers because he/she performs various old activities like collection of water, fuel, maintenance of house and other miscellaneous domestic chores.
Today’s children are the pillars of the nation. The future of the nation cannot be as expected prosperous development if they are not provided proper education. Many children are migrating towards the urban centers due to poverty and others various reasons. With the development of different modern technologies, urban centers are receiving large numbers of child labourers. Most of them are working in carpet factories and other industries like constructions, transport services, domestic services, hotels restaurants, etc. we can find children employed as labourers ritually in every sector.
In our country, carpet industries are one of the industrial sectors where numbers of child labourers are working. Generally, each carpet factories has an intimate link with the contactors or ‘Thekedar’. They roam around the Mountains, Hill and Terai and motivate the people to go to the industrial urban areas, especially in Kathmandu valley to work in carpet industries. Most of the child labourers are uneducated due to poverty. Their parents’ socio-economic status is very poor. It is found that about (63.6%) parents of child labourers in carpet sectors are landless. Child labourers have to work 15 hours a day and earn rs.1500 per month but most of them do not get their salary as it directly paid to parents, relatives orcontractors. There is high risk of health hazard due to poor sanitation surrounding carpet factories. They are suffering from various physical and mental problems. (ILO, 2006).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to find out the factors responsible for child labour. The specific objectives of this study are as follows:-
- To examine the socio-economic condition of child labourers.
- To access the literacy status and problems faced by the child labourers.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The present study focuses mainly on child labourers who are working in the carpet factories, their causes and economic issues of them, this type of study will be useful for planners and policy makers in view of children welfare and their betterment.
It will be useful in making policies and programmes on abolishing child labour practices and avoiding negative impacts on economic and local social environment resulting from it. It is certainly difficult to formulate realistic plan and programmes for the betterment of the working children and their socio- economic life of them. Therefore, the study has both practical as well as academic importance.
1.5 Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are as follows:-
- The study area is limited to child labourers of 17 carpet factories of Gokarneshwor Municipality of Kathmandu district. Therefore, the findings of research may not be generalized for the whole country.
- Gokarneshwor Municipality is selected for finding of the study and is limited aspects of child labourers.
- The required informations are collected from both primary and secondary sources. There may be various weaknesses and data gap due to time, money and resource constraints of researchers.