SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Children are future leaders and nation builders. The present situation of children reflects the future condition of the nation. So, it is necessary to pay special attention and care for the development of children. The concept of human right and child rights were introduced globally after the First World War and nowadays it was accepted that the violation of child rights is considered as violation of human rights. The child labourer is appeared as a serious problem in the world. ILO estimated that 205 million children between 4-14 years of age are working in the developing countries. Approximately, 120 millions of these children work full time ten millions of them work under exploitation and vulnerable condition. In early days, the carpet industries in Nepal had provided employment to 300 Tibetan refugees. Nowadays, about 300,000 people are earning their livelihood from the carpet industries. Carpet is the major overseas exportable item in the international trade of Nepal.
All child labourers in carpet factories were migrated from various districts of Nepal. Several types of pull and push factors played role in migration process of child labourers. Poverty, abusive behavior of parents/step parents etc, are push factors and job opportunities in carpet factories and other places of urban areas are pull factors for migration of them. Mainly, child labourers in carpet factories are supplied from the Hilly and Terai regions. Among them Makawanpur, Sarlahi, Sindhupalchok, Bara etc are main supplier districts of child labourers.
This study is conducted over the Boudha, Jorpati of Kathmandu district which is high industrialized area. There are many carpet factories but only 17 factories were selected for this purpose. The purposive sampling (non-probability) method is used in this study. Male 54 (52.9%) and Female 48(47.1%) were taken in this research and they were directly interviewed on the spot the condition/environment of factory is observed to fulfill the objectives of the study, too.
The socio-economic status of household of child labourers is very poor. About 16.7 percent households of child labourers are completely landless and their annual income is no sufficient to support the family. The working condition of carpet factory is not good for child labourers. They are facing various health-related problems. The child laboures have to work upto late night but the income scale is very low. They have to fulfill everything from their income. On the other hand, some child labourers do not collect their salary themselves. Only 63.7 percent children collect their salary themselves whereas others’ salary is collected by their parents, Thekedars and other relatives. Some child labourers are provided other facilities, too. But they are not sufficient to fill their needs. The accommodation facilities is provided them but in very narrow and not well ventilated rooms for many children.
Most of the child labourers are suffering from abuse and exploitation. 48.0 percent, child labourers experienced various types of abuse in the carpet industries. The employers, adult co-workers, Thekedars, Supervisors, Parents and employer relatives are main abuser in the carpet factories. Various types of injury and health-related (illness) problem faced by children are associated with work and living condition. They have to work in hazard form. So, the children are suffering from headache, fever, coughing/respiratory problems, chest pain, eye problem, skin diseases, joint pain, etc.
Majority of the child labourers are from Janajatis. They have their own culture and festivals. About (73.5%) child labourers celebrate their own culture festivals in carpet industries. Children have right to freedom and entertainment but in carpet industries they have less freedom and opportunities for entertainment, children are highly exploited and deprived of various rights in carpet industries.
In the concluding remarks, it can be said that child labour is a serious problem because it greatly influences the society and majority of the children joined in carpet factory due to poverty and hand to mouth problems. Children are marginalized and are suffering from various problems as mentioned above and highly exploited. In fact, the situation of carpet industry adversely affected in the overall development and prosperity of children.
The existence of children working in the carpet industries reflects the underdevelopment condition of Nepal. Government has not taken strong action against the carpet industry to eradicate the child labour. Some INGOs and NGOs are working in this sector but efforts of them are not sufficient. Our immediate aim must be to control the hiring of the child labourers and to improve the condition of child labourers. Attention must be drawn to its cruel dehumanizing and oppressive nature to promote the rights, welfare and dignity of the children who are working in carpet industries in Nepal.
The major findings of the study are listed below:
- The carpet sector in Nepal has been a leading industry in export production and in terms of employment.
- Age and sex: – child labourers in carpet industries are dominated by boys (52.9%) over girls (47.1%). In terms of age, from 11-17 years of age are working in carpet industries.
- Caste/ethnicity: – various caste/ethnicity groups’ child labourers are working there. Most fo them are from Janajati ethnic group. Among them, there is majority of Tamang(67.6%) AND Sherpa (1.0%) are minority.
- Education:-about 34.3 percent child labourers illiterate who cannot read and write. Out of total 93.1 percent never attends school or already dropped out but only (6.9%) are currently attending the school.
- Children work under highly adverse condition:- Long hours in unhealthy environments, low wage and hazardous condition. They suffer from various environments, low wage and hazardous condition. They suffer from various illnesses such as respiratory disease, skin problems, headache, eye problems etc. Which are associated with living and working condition. But employers have made almost no efforts to improve the situation.
- Makawanpur, Sarlahi, Sindhupalchok, Mahotari, Bara are main supplier districts of child labourers.
- Family economic condition:- the households with children working in carpet factories are found to be landless(63.7%) is not sufficient to support their family.
- Formor carpet worker, parents, relatives and Thekedars bring the children from their home to carpet factories. Thekedars system highly existed in the carpet sectors.
- Supervisors, employees, adults co-workers abuse the child labourers and physically as well as mentally to a large extent.
On the basis of such evidence, we can say that the prevalence of child labours in carpet industries is one of the worst forms of child labourers that is against I.L.O convention.